Thanks for the replies. I looked at the things that were suggested, but everything checked out okay. I don't have any HEI parts, just a Pertronix coil and ignitor so I don't have to worry about points.
After characterizing the issue a bit more it appears to be a faulty ignition switch.
When I was outside the car, attempting to look at the voltage to the coil during cranking, I noticed that the engine would start instantly when I turned the ignition switch to start, but then when I tried to start the engine when I was in the driver's seat, I had the same old problem and the engine wouldn't start until I released the ignition switch back to on.
Being an engineer, I realized that whether I was inside or outside that car should have no effect on whether the engine would start or not, so I thought about what I could be doing differently in each case.
When I was outside the driver's side door, I would force the ignition switch to the left slightly while turning, and I wouldn't turn the switch all the way as far clockwise as it would go in the start position, due to the awkward angle I had from outside the car. However, when in the driver's seat I wouldn't push the switch to the left at all, and I have a habit of turning the ignition switch as far clockwise as it will go when starting.
When I used the outside technique when I was inside the car (pushing to the left and turning the ignition switch just to the point where the engine would start to crank and no futher), the engine would start instantly. And when I used my inside technique when I was outside (turning the ignition switch as far clockwise as it would go), the engine wouldn't start until I released the switch back to on.
I guess after 34 plus years, it's time to replace the ignition switch.
Thanks again for all the suggestions.